Crop production

Rules of planting and care of the cathedral pear

Many gardeners want to grow pear trees, but find it difficult to choose a variety. Each variety requires different methods of care, and is susceptible to disease, pests and climatic conditions in different ways. For those who want to consume delicious fresh pears in the summer and do not particularly worry about their tree in winter, the cathedral variety will suit.

Description and characteristics of the variety

The mid-summer variety Katedralnaya was obtained by breeders Potapov S.P. and Chizhov S.T. at the Moscow Agricultural Academy. This pear was originally intended for cultivation in the central zone, but its frost resistance is sufficient to withstand the climate of colder areas.

The tree is of medium height, with a thick conical crown. Branches with smooth gray bark grow straight, are relatively rare. Straight shoots are red-brown in color. Oval leaves of green and medium size, with a smooth surface. Fruit wood are, as a rule, simple people and young shoots. The pear blossoms with large flowers of white color.

Fruits are green-yellow, medium-sized (medium weight 110–130 g), with a glossy smooth skin, the surface is slightly bumpy. At the onset of full ripening, the pears acquire a light yellow color with a faint red blush.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety - table

  • precociation (the first 2–3 dozen pears can be obtained from the 3rd – 4th year after planting),
  • regular good yield - 35–40 kg per 1 tree,
  • high frost resistance - can withstand temperatures as low as -30 o C,
  • resistance to scab damage.
  • small sizes of fruits,
  • poor keeping quality (only about 2 weeks),
  • average transportability.

Landing features

The cathedral is very demanding on the quality of the soil. Best of all, she feels on fertile sandy-black-earth soil. If the predominant substrate in your area is sand or loam, it is necessary to take measures to improve it and apply organic fertilizer.

Do not plant in the wet area. If the plot is low, find a height for the pear. Drainage can also be applied.

Pears are rarely self-bearing, and the Cathedral also needs a nearby tree-pollinator. In this capacity, the following varieties will suit:

The tree should be planted so that the root collar remains 5–6 cm above the soil level. Too deep planting causes drying of the tips of the branches, delaying the start of fruiting.

Pears can be planted both in spring and in autumn. Spring planting is recommended for regions with early autumn frosts and is made in April - early May. In the autumn should be planted for 25-30 days before the onset of frost, usually done in October.

A planting pit prepared in autumn should be filled with organic fertilizers (2–3 buckets of humus, rotted manure or compost) and mineral substances (140–150 g of sulfuric potassium or 0.8–0.9 kg of wood ash, 75–85 g of ammonia saltpeter, 0.9–1 kg of superphosphate). This supply of seedlings with nutrients increases its resistance to diseases, helps to accelerate the entry into fruiting and makes it possible to postpone fertilization in the next 2-3 years after planting. In the center of the pit you need to score a stake.

Sapling buy only healthy - with flexible twigs, live buds, whole and shiny bark, intact roots and root neck.

  1. Place the seedling in the pit. Keep your roots straight.
  2. Cover the seedling with earth. Sway the tree a little, so that the soil fills all the gaps between the roots. At the same time, compact the soil with your foot.Be careful not to peel the bark from the trunk.
  3. Loosely tie the seedling to the cola, pour it with three buckets of water. This contributes to the proper planting of the soil and the tight fit of the soil to the roots.
  4. Re-tie the tree tightly with an 8-shaped loop. Such tying does not allow the tree to rub against the stake in the wind.

Department of Pear: description and characteristics of the variety, advantages and disadvantages, features of planting and care + photos and reviews

Many gardeners want to grow pear trees, but find it difficult to choose a variety. Each variety requires different methods of care, and is susceptible to disease, pests and climatic conditions in different ways. For those who want to consume delicious fresh pears in the summer and do not particularly worry about their tree in winter, the cathedral variety will suit.

Tree care

For normal growth and development of pear trees and ensuring high yields, an optimum amount of moisture in the soil is required. Also, the plant must be formed and fed.

An excess or lack of water adversely affects the state of the foliage and the whole tree. The maximum amount of moisture trees required before and during flowering, as well as the appearance of leaves. If it is not enough in the early spring period, most of the leaf buds are not revealed, it remains at rest. The development of young leaves is slow, the growth of shoots is weak. If the lack of moisture in the spring-summer period is accompanied by excessive heat, the general condition of the trees worsens. In summer drought, the lack of fluid to the root system causes the die-off of the suction roots. If the required amount of water is not accumulated in the fall, the wood and roots begin to dry out, and the frost resistance is reduced.

Excess moisture reduces the air content in the soil, which violates the respiration of the roots, weakens them and, eventually, leads to their death. At the same time, the shrinkage of the tree begins - first the central conductor, then the main branches.

Pear should be moistened regularly, but moderately, proportioning the number and volume of irrigation with weather conditions. Usually mature trees are watered 4–6 times per summer, spending 50–70 l of water per tree. Young trees are moistened more often: in the first year - once a week, then once every two weeks at a rate of 20–30 liters of water per 1 tree. Good results are obtained by sprinkling, but it is possible to inject fluid into small temporary furrows.

Soil care

During the first year after planting, the soil in the trunk circles and aisle should be kept under black steam.

From the second year you can use the soil between the trees for growing vegetables, mustard, buckwheat. It is not necessary to plant late varieties of cabbage, because of them the autumn digging of the earth is delayed.

It is impossible to plant corn - it dries the substrate strongly and inhibits the growth of the pear tree.

Pristvolny circles need to be kept in a loose state, weed regularly and weed out and mulch. Peat or peat compost (20–25 kg per 1 m2) is used as mulch, which is laid with a layer thickness of 6–8 cm.

Pruning is necessary to remove dried and diseased branches, to improve the illumination of the crown and the formation of a tree. For pear trees, formative pruning is not necessary, as they are usually well formed naturally.

Pruning can help form a wider crown.

Sanitary and thinning pruning is desirable to carry out in March-April, before bud breaks, or in the fall after leaf fall. Cut branches should be at the base, not leaving hemp (they interfere with the normal healing of wounds). When pruning can not remove more than a quarter of the total volume of the crown.

In addition to normal pruning, rationing of the ovaries may be required. Often the number formed on the tree ovaries is redundant.

It is known that for good yields of pears there is no need for the huge number of flowers that form one tree during the period of full fruiting (more than 50 thousand). It is enough if there are 5 thousand flowers on the tree.

Zvonarev N.M.

All about pear. Varieties, cultivation, care.

The tree spends a large amount of nutrients on the extra fruits, most of which do not gain the required size and quality. As a result, the annual growth is too weak, an insufficient number of flower buds is formed (the harvest of the next year will be small), the winter hardiness of the tree decreases.

The best time to ration fruit is June (at the end of the natural abscission of the ovary). First of all, it is necessary to remove the underdeveloped and damaged ovaries, in each inflorescence you need to leave 1 fetus so that it is provided with good nutrition. On average, after thinning, 1 fruit per 20-30 leaves should be left.

In the practice of growing pears on dwarf rootstocks, the fruits are left at a distance of 25 cm during normalization.

Fruits of less large-fruited varieties, such as Bessemyanka, Tonkovetka, Leningradskaya, Petrovka and others, leave 5–6, but not more than 10 fruits per 1 linear meter of the branch.

Rationing helps to obtain high-quality large fruits with a stronger aroma and better taste.

Zvonarev N.M.

All about pear. Varieties, cultivation, care.

In case of a weak harvest, the rationing of fruits is not carried out. To facilitate this work, you must first shake the branches to remove dead ovaries that have not yet had time to fall off themselves.

In the summer, a special type of pruning may be performed - pinching, designed to stimulate the growth of shoots. Conduct it should be in mid-June, while the shoots are not woody.

Pinning is also called summer pinching; it consists in removing the growing point of strongly growing shoots above the 3-6th well-developed leaflet. As a result of the procedure, the growth of the shoot stops, but after 2–3 weeks, it usually starts to grow again from the lateral kidney, which should be pinched again.

Trimming Techniques - Video

To ensure the normal general condition of the tree and high-quality crops, soil enrichment with organic and mineral fertilizers is required.

Weathered peat, peat composts with the addition of slurry, humus, half-burnt manure should be added to the near-trunk circles. It is recommended to use not just organic matter, but its mixture with mineral substances. To make it:

  1. Lay 12–15-centimeter layer of organic matter.
  2. Potassium chloride and superphosphate are poured on top, then organic again, and so on, until 4–6 layers are laid.
  3. To ensure the impregnation of organic matter with a solution of minerals, the whole mass is mixed and left for 4–5 days.
  4. The mixture is applied once every 2–3 years from the third year after planting (until this time, the nutrition of young trees is provided by fertilizers introduced during planting). The rate of fertilizer application per square meter of the trunk circle: 3-5 kg ​​of rotted manure, humus or compost, 100-120 g of superphosphate and 20-30 g of potassium chloride.

Nitrogen fertilizers are used every spring at a rate of 20–30 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2. It can be applied dry - scatter on the surface of the soil and close up when digging the soil.

Organic and mineral fertilizers contribute to digging

If top dressing is introduced in liquid form, then a furrow is laid on the outer part of the near-circle circle and a solution is poured there (2–3 g of nitrate per 1 liter of water).

In addition to saltpeter, liquid dressing is produced by diluted slurry and bird droppings. Manure must be diluted 3-4 times with water, and litter 10 times (dry 20 times). At 3-4 m furrows contribute 1-1.5 buckets of the solution.

If the soil is dry, you must first pour it with clean water. In the late autumn feeding nitrogen should not be added.

If vegetables are grown between trees, the rate of fertilizer per 1 m2 is:

  • 6–7 kg of humus and peat compost,
  • 50–60 g of superphosphate,
  • 25–30 g of potassium chloride,
  • 100–110 g of wood ash,
  • 35–40 g of ammonium nitrate.

Preparing for the winter

The pear Khasredralnaya has high frost resistance and does not need warming for the winter. But young trees (the first 2-4 years) should still be sheltered from the cold.

When cold weather approaches, the seedling stem should be tied with fir branches, and the ground near the tree should be covered with a layer of manure. It should be laid at some distance from the stem to avoid rotting of the bark. Spruce branches protect not only from the cold, but also from mice and hares.

Spuding young pears should not be, as this reduces winter hardiness. Binding against rodents should be carried out only in late autumn, when the temperature drops to -2–3 ° C, when the wood tissue is already hardened.

Adult pears protect from rodents also with the help of fir branches or other prickly and inedible materials.

Plastic tube can be used to protect against mice and hares.

Harvesting, storage and use of the crop

The fruits of the Cathedral ripen by mid-August, the collection usually ends by September. Fruits are considered suitable for removal when their color becomes greenish-yellow.

Begin to remove the pears from the outer part of the crown first of all from the bottom, because when collecting from the top branches they can break and damage the bottom ones. When working, care must be taken not to drop or crush them.

You should also be more careful with the stalk, it needs to be bent up, until it breaks off from the branch, and not pull to yourself.

It is best to put the collected pears in the fruit bag and plastic basket. Such a container can be conveniently hung on the branches of a tree and the fruits are removed with two hands.

Since the Katsidralnaya pears are poorly stored, they must either be quickly eaten fresh or processed into dried fruits, compotes, jams, candied fruits, and juices.

With the help of fresh pear you can decorate the cake in a very original way

The pear of the Cathedral has good taste, resistant to cold and disease, but its fruits are stored for long. Growers can grow growers in Central Russia.

Pear Cathedra: sweet beauty in the garden

Pear is a tasty and healthy delicacy that we have loved since childhood. Currently, by breeding created many varieties, pleasing gardeners different tastes and colors of fruits.

Pear is a tasty and healthy delicacy that we have loved since childhood.

These include pear and cathedra. This variety was bred more than 20 years ago and is still successfully cultivated in many personal plots.

Description and characteristics of the cat varieties of pears

Cathedral gardeners like their unpretentiousness

The pear was bred as a result of the crossing of seedlings 32–67 (Forest Beauty * Tyoma) and 72–43 (Forest Beauty * Duschess Thigh) at the Moscow Academy of Agricultural Sciences. K.A. Timiryazeva. The variety has been developed by S. P. Potapov and S. T. Chizhov. In 1990, the state test of the Cathedral began, and in 2001 the culture was zoned in the Central region.

The tree belongs to mid-varieties. Krone of the correct conical shape. The branches are straight, the ends are directed upwards. Crown thickening is average. The bark is gray and has a smooth surface. The main part of the ovaries are formed on kolchatka, a small amount - on the annual branches.

The shoots are round in cross section, medium in size, have a reddish-brown color. Buds are large, shaped like a cone. The leaves are large and medium in size, are painted in light green color. The oval-shaped plate with a shiny surface, noticeably bent upwards. The flowers are white, large size, cup-shaped, oval petals.

The fruits of the Cathedral are small in size, their mass reaches 110–130. They have the correct pear-shaped shape and a bumpy surface. The skin is smooth, subcutaneous points visible. The color of the fruit is greenish-yellow. They may have a blurry red blush. The stem is thick, of medium length. Funnel pear has not. Saucer medium width.

The flesh is white, fine-grained, juicy, medium density. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour. The aroma is not very pronounced. The taste of pears was rated at 4 points on a 5-point tasting scale. The composition of the fruit includes:

Feature of the variety is high winter hardiness.

Plant Care

Pear poured over the sprinkler or through the grooves

For full development and fruiting pear requires watering. The regularity of the procedure depends on the weather conditions and the age of the tree. Before the start of fruiting pear watering 1 time per week. When the plant reaches three years of age, this procedure is carried out before and after flowering. On one tree spend 20-30 liters of water.

You can water the pear by sprinkling or through the grooves. The first way is to use special sprayers, in which water is supplied. As these devices rotate, the droplets splatter and create the effect of rain.

In the second method of irrigation, grooves 10 cm deep are dug in the area of ​​the circle of the trunk (1.5 m of circumference), then water is poured into them. In order to better penetrate the soil into the soil, it is recommended to serve it in several stages.

Important! After irrigation, grumble the tree circle with peat or humus - this will help prevent moisture evaporation.

Tree fertilized five times a year

Several times during the growing season it is necessary to feed the pear. Fertilizer application scheme is as follows:

    During the flowering period, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are introduced: saltpeter (30 g per 1 m² of the stem, diluted in water at a ratio of 1:50), urea (100–120 g per tree, diluted with 5 l of water).

  • The next feeding is carried out in May, as it allows to improve the quality and taste of the fruit. A nitroammofosk diluted in water at the rate of 1 kg per 200 l is brought under the pear. For one tree requires 30 liters of this composition.
  • Then the pear is fed once in June and July with nitrogen-containing compounds, which are prepared using nitrate and carbamide.

    The scheme is similar as in the flowering period. In autumn, the soil is fertilized until mid-September. In 30 liters of water dilute 3 tbsp. l potassium chloride and 6 tbsp. l granular superphosphate. The components are well mixed and contribute to the trunk circle.

  • To provide the tree with food in the winter, in the late fall, wood ash at the rate of 150 g per 1 m² is introduced under it, when digging, and the depth of laying is 10 cm.
  • Important! In autumn, the pear cannot be fertilized with nitrogenous substances.

    Pruning allows you to make the crop more abundant

    Obligatory stage of care is pruning the tree, which is performed in order to form the crown and ensure uniform illumination of all branches. It should take into account some features of the process:

      The first time the procedure is carried out before landing. The plant is shortened at 60 cm from the ground.

  • Starting next year, pruning is done in the spring, before bud breaks, or in the fall - until frost.
  • In summer, the branches should not be shortened, because you can remove the foliage needed by the tree.
  • In winter, this should also not be done. Under conditions of low temperature, the branches will not only not heal, but may also die.

    For work you will need a garden pruner. Pruning begins with shortening by 25% of the central branch. This will contribute to the formation of branched crown and the formation of a large number of ovaries.

    The remaining shoots are cut above the level of the first kidney. The following year, the central branch is shortened by 25 cm, the rest - by 6-7 cm. The upper shoots should be shorter than the lower ones.

    Subsequently, they eliminate weak, dried and growing inward branches.

    Shelter for the winter

    In November, the pear must be prepared for the winter period. In order for the soil to be well-moistened during this time, water recharge, or reserve, watering is carried out. To do this, one tree consumes 100 liters of water.

    Whitewashing the trunk protects the pear from pests

    Next you need to take care of protecting the pear from pests. To this end, the trunk and skeletal branches of the lower tier covered with whitewash. To prepare the composition, it is necessary to mix 200 g of wood glue, 2.5 kg of lime and 10 liters of water.

    Important! Before whitewashing, dried fragments of bark, moss and lichens are removed from the trunk and branches.

    Work is done by hands without the use of tools to avoid damage. For convenience, it is recommended to wear gloves. Then, if there are cracks in the tree, they are covered with garden pitch. For its preparation, you need to mix in equal parts paraffin, natural linseed oil and rosin. Then proceed to the whitewash, which is applied to the tree with a paint brush.

    The Departmental pear is not too susceptible to frost, but it is advisable to cover young trees under the age of 4 years with a cloth or thick paper. This material is necessary to wrap the skeletal branches and the trunk. After the snow has fallen, throw it into a circle. Such cover will prevent soil freezing.

    Harvesting

    Vintage cathedral harvested at the end of summer

    The cathedral is a mid-season variety, pears reach full ripeness in the second half of August. Fruiting begins at 3-4 years after planting. 35 kg of fruit are obtained from one tree.

    Crop is collected in baskets or boxes, at the bottom you can lay a paper or lay a layer of chips. Tara should be dry. Fruits desirable to pluck in the morning or evening.

    Important! If the harvest is gathered during the lunch period, the fruit must be placed for 3-4 hours in a cool place.

    Pears need to be plucked from the stalks. Fruits from the top of the crown are removed using a ladder, you should not shake them off. The cathedral fruits are stored for 10–12 days at a temperature of + 1 ... + 2 ° С and humidity of 85–90%. Transportability is average. Pears are used for making compotes, jams, dried fruits, jams, as well as for fresh consumption.

    Gardeners reviews

    It can have a light reddish flank, wadded to taste, not sour. I do not advise you to do a big tree - the fruits are not flat.

    Filifionka
    http://www.websad.ru/archdis.php?code=731004

    Winter-hardy enough. Juicy dense tender flesh. With aroma. Picturesque, with bright pink-cr. sideways. Summer, because not intended to lie.

    toliam1
    https://forum.tvoysad.ru/plodovye-derevya-f30/grusha-pyrus-t181–120.html

    At our country house in St. Petersburg, the Cathedral bears fruit. Already in August pears ripen. Sweet and juicy.

    Love Sage
    https://otvet.mail.ru/question/23433766

    The cathedral bloomed in the third year, so the height of the tree is already more than 4 m.

    Alex
    http://iplants.ru/forum/index.php?showtopic=3069&st=30

    When growing the cathedral variety, one should take into account the sensitivity of the crop to the ground. The pear also needs systematic watering and pruning. To ensure the plant nutrition, in the soil regularly need to make fertilizer.

    Pear trees are almost an integral part of any garden.

    But before an amateur gardener there is always a question. Want a disease-resistant pear with tasty fruits, like those of the southern varieties, and winter hardiness; Late varieties of fruit trees are able to delight with their gifts in the autumn and winter months, when Remontant raspberry Caramelka is an extremely productive crop that deservedly It is one of the most popular among the late varieties of fruit trees and is able to delight with its gifts during the autumn and winter months, when most gardeners tend to grow something unusual to the envy of their neighbors. Exotic black raspberries on a plot of Cherry Russian gardeners grow with pleasure, if the climate allows. Variety Shokoladnitsa enjoys a pear - a fruit that we love since childhood. Almost every garden grows. Apple Melba is quite in demand among gardeners due to its many positive qualities, such as good yield. Given the number of varieties of pears, it is no wonder to get lost in the process of finding your own, suitable variety that will justify

    Cathedral - a sort of pears that everyone loves

    This mid-summer variety has managed to quickly take its rightful place among fruit trees, has earned the love of agronomists and gardeners. The description shows that the variety is relatively young, first declared itself in 1990, when it was sent for testing and confirmation of characteristics to an experimental station from the Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy.

    Young variety - Cathedral pear

    History of the variety

    A well-groomed orchard with beautiful fruits is the pride of any gardener. For the fact that with love and care gardeners relate to each tree, they are waiting for a reward - juicy and sweet fruit.

    It is hard to imagine that in some garden there is no pear, because the fruits are loved by everyone without exception. There are many varieties of this tree in the world and with the passage of time all new varieties appear.

    Among the most beloved gardeners and gardeners is the young variety - Katedralnaya pear.

    The description shows that it was obtained by selection carried out by scientists - agronomists S.T. Chizhov and S.P. Potapov and multi-species crossing of seedling 32-67 (parents of Forest Beauty, Subject) and hybrid 72-43 (Forest Beauty and Duchess Thigh).

    After eleven years of regionalization, the variety was entered in the State Register in the Central Region, the Cathedral pear can grow even in some northern regions.

    The plant embodies the best qualities of its parents, suitable for industrial breeding and cultivation in personal plots and gardens.

    The pear tree is rather winter-hardy, it successfully goes through winters in central Russia, in warmer regions, it feels even better.

    If you decide to grow such an interesting variety in your garden, you should know how to take care of trees and how they look

    Adult tree of medium vigor, densely covered with green leaves, cone-shaped crown. Skeletal branches are directed straight up. The main trunk is smooth, gray color. As indicated by the description, annual shoots rarely have fruit, more often the ovaries are on kolchatka.

    The leaves are medium in size, light green, in shape resemble an oval, the leaf at the end is pointed, the edges are framed with fine teeth.

    Leaves pear Cathedral medium in size, light green

    Veins are clearly distinguished on smooth shiny leaves. The leaf is strongly bent upwards. On the reverse side there is no pubescence.

    Inflorescence in the form of a brush or shield. White flowers, large with rounded petals, pollinated by wind or insects. The tree is skoroplodnoe, brings a bountiful harvest annually. The average rate of 8.5 kg per hundred. In the five years of testing from 1990 to 1995, the average yield of pears reached 13.65 kg per hundred, which is higher than the control estimate.

    • Absolutely not prone to scab and fungal diseases.
    • High winter hardiness (minus 30 degrees).
    • Skoroplodnost (already in the fourth year of life, the first fruits appear).
    • High annual fecundity.

    Among the many advantages, there are significant drawbacks:

    • Short laying period.
    • Lack of storage.
    • Low transportability.
    • Small fetus size.

    Medium or small, regular shape and irregular bumpy surface. They reach full maturity at the end of August, but at the beginning of September the fruits are already collected. Fruit weight does not exceed 115-135 grams. The shelf life of the fruit - no more than 10-13 days. The skin is tender, soft, smooth, slightly oily, shiny.

    When pear fruits reach removable maturity, the color becomes light yellow with numerous subcutaneous spots, which are hardly noticeable (gray, green), but scattered over the entire surface of the fruit. The color of the fruit that has reached full maturity may change to light yellow.. From the side, turned to the sun, there is a small blush.

    Peduncle curved, thick, small. Small diamond shaped heart.

    The flesh does not have a strong aroma, medium density, white, very tender, fine-grained, there is some oiliness.

    To taste sweet and sour, juicy, ideal for fresh consumption. Pears are suitable for industrial processing, canning, fresh consumption.

    For long-term storage are harvested in the form of dried fruit. Raw pears make excellent jam.

    Taste qualities of the Cathedral are estimated at 4.0 points, appearance - 4.3 points. By chemical composition:

    • the amount of sugars —8, 5%,
    • acids — 0.3%,
    • dry matter — 16.0%.

    Pears should be collected within 3-5 days before reaching their full maturity and quickly used, as overripe quickly deteriorate, starting from the center.

    Tree care

    The description of the variety shows that it is demanding to the ground. Prefers fertile sandy-chernozem soil without clay. In all other cases, it is necessary to add nutrients annually so that the pear develops normally, does not hurt and bears fruit.

    Planting pears in a prepared pit

    A plot with closely located groundwater and wet sand is undesirable for landing the Cathedral. In such places, you need to specially prepare a place for planting, put the ground on a hill and ensure good drainage. Before planting seedlings, all weeds should be removed and the soil loosened. If you want, you can mulch.

    1. The soil and the pit for planting prepared in advance.
    2. Locate the future pear orchard.
    3. 10-14 days before planting, dig holes in the appropriate places. During this time, the soil has time to condense and settle and there is no risk that the root neck will be below the prescribed level. Pit size: 30 cm deep and 30-40 cm wide.
    4. Surface soil is dug to one side, and from deeper layers to the other.
    5. In the lower part of the pit poured fertile land in which the roots will grow. If the soil is of poor quality, make a mixture of land, peat and manure. Put a peg in the hole.
    6. Roots evenly placed in the pit, they can not be twisted and bent. Sick or broken need to be removed.
    7. The tree is placed in the hole so that the budding site is 15 cm above the surface and sprinkled with earth from another pile. When falling asleep the ground, shake the tree periodically gently to avoid voids between the roots. It is best to do it together.
    8. The vaccination site does not fall asleep.
    9. After planting it is plentiful to water a tree 5-10 liters.

    In the fall, around the pear tree form a protective mound, which is eliminated in March. In the spring, around the trunk of the Cathedral, it is recommended to put manure, at least 10 kg per plant, so that it does not come into contact with the trunk and grind it.

    If the summer is too hot and dry, then watering should be once a week. In wet weather - much less. It is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, remove dry and excess shoots, it is necessary for the correct growth of the tree, abundant fruiting, and the correct color of the fruit, the formation of taste.

    When pruning, it should be remembered that the pear bears fruit on short shoots that age much faster than long ones, and therefore the pear requires frequent rejuvenation.

    To do this, the old branches (3-4 years) are cut, leaving 5-10 cm from the guide stem, so that new branches grow on the old branches (from sleeping buds).

    Diseases and pests

    The cathedral variety is resistant to scab, but when cultivated, you can encounter other diseases, as well as pests.

    The most common grade diseases - table

    Diseases of pear in the photo

    Mealy dew attacks young trees

    Rust degrades the leaves

    Cytosporosis occurs due to drought

    Black cancer strikes the bark of pear

    Milky luster appears after the heat

    Typical pests of the Cathedral - table

    Malicious insects in the photo

    Harvesting

    Vintage cathedral harvested at the end of summer

    The cathedral is a mid-season variety, pears reach full ripeness in the second half of August. Fruiting begins at 3-4 years after planting. 35 kg of fruit are obtained from one tree.

    Crop is collected in baskets or boxes, at the bottom you can lay a paper or lay a layer of chips. Tara should be dry. Fruits desirable to pluck in the morning or evening.

    Important! If the harvest is gathered during the lunch period, the fruit must be placed for 3-4 hours in a cool place.

    Pears need to be plucked from the stalks. Fruits from the top of the crown are removed using a ladder, you should not shake them off. The cathedral fruits are stored for 10–12 days at a temperature of + 1 ... + 2 ° С and humidity of 85–90%. Transportability is average. Pears are used for making compotes, jams, dried fruits, jams, as well as for fresh consumption.

    Gardeners reviews

    It can have a light reddish flank, wadded to taste, not sour. I do not advise you to do a big tree - the fruits are not flat.

    Filifionka
    http://www.websad.ru/archdis.php?code=731004

    Winter-hardy enough. Juicy dense tender flesh. With aroma. Picturesque, with bright pink-cr. sideways. Summer, because not intended to lie.

    toliam1
    https://forum.tvoysad.ru/plodovye-derevya-f30/grusha-pyrus-t181–120.html

    At our country house in St. Petersburg, the Cathedral bears fruit. Already in August pears ripen. Sweet and juicy.

    Love Sage
    https://otvet.mail.ru/question/23433766

    The cathedral bloomed in the third year, so the height of the tree is already more than 4 m.

    Alex
    http://iplants.ru/forum/index.php?showtopic=3069&st=30

    When growing the cathedral variety, one should take into account the sensitivity of the crop to the ground. The pear also needs systematic watering and pruning. To ensure the plant nutrition, in the soil regularly need to make fertilizer.

    Pear trees are almost an integral part of any garden.

    But before an amateur gardener there is always a question. Want a disease-resistant pear with tasty fruits, like those of the southern varieties, and winter hardiness; Late varieties of fruit trees are able to delight with their gifts in the autumn and winter months, when Remontant raspberry Caramelka is an extremely productive crop that deservedly It is one of the most popular among the late varieties of fruit trees and is able to delight with its gifts during the autumn and winter months, when most gardeners tend to grow something unusual to the envy of their neighbors. Exotic black raspberries on a plot of Cherry Russian gardeners grow with pleasure, if the climate allows. Variety Shokoladnitsa enjoys a pear - a fruit that we love since childhood. Almost every garden grows. Apple Melba is quite in demand among gardeners due to its many positive qualities, such as good yield. Given the number of varieties of pears, it is no wonder to get lost in the process of finding your own, suitable variety that will justify

    Cathedral - a sort of pears that everyone loves

    This mid-summer variety has managed to quickly take its rightful place among fruit trees, has earned the love of agronomists and gardeners. The description shows that the variety is relatively young, first declared itself in 1990, when it was sent for testing and confirmation of characteristics to an experimental station from the Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy.

    Young variety - Cathedral pear

    History of the variety

    A well-groomed orchard with beautiful fruits is the pride of any gardener. For the fact that with love and care gardeners relate to each tree, they are waiting for a reward - juicy and sweet fruit.

    It is hard to imagine that in some garden there is no pear, because the fruits are loved by everyone without exception. There are many varieties of this tree in the world and with the passage of time all new varieties appear.

    Among the most beloved gardeners and gardeners is the young variety - Katedralnaya pear.

    The description shows that it was obtained by selection carried out by scientists - agronomists S.T. Chizhov and S.P. Potapov and multi-species crossing of seedling 32-67 (parents of Forest Beauty, Subject) and hybrid 72-43 (Forest Beauty and Duchess Thigh).

    After eleven years of regionalization, the variety was entered in the State Register in the Central Region, the Cathedral pear can grow even in some northern regions.

    The plant embodies the best qualities of its parents, suitable for industrial breeding and cultivation in personal plots and gardens.

    The pear tree is rather winter-hardy, it successfully goes through winters in central Russia, in warmer regions, it feels even better.

    If you decide to grow such an interesting variety in your garden, you should know how to take care of trees and how they look

    Adult tree of medium vigor, densely covered with green leaves, cone-shaped crown. Skeletal branches are directed straight up. The main trunk is smooth, gray color. As indicated by the description, annual shoots rarely have fruit, more often the ovaries are on kolchatka.

    The leaves are medium in size, light green, in shape resemble an oval, the leaf at the end is pointed, the edges are framed with fine teeth.

    Leaves pear Cathedral medium in size, light green

    Veins are clearly distinguished on smooth shiny leaves. The leaf is strongly bent upwards. On the reverse side there is no pubescence.

    Inflorescence in the form of a brush or shield. White flowers, large with rounded petals, pollinated by wind or insects. The tree is skoroplodnoe, brings a bountiful harvest annually. The average rate of 8.5 kg per hundred. In the five years of testing from 1990 to 1995, the average yield of pears reached 13.65 kg per hundred, which is higher than the control estimate.

    • Absolutely not prone to scab and fungal diseases.
    • High winter hardiness (minus 30 degrees).
    • Skoroplodnost (already in the fourth year of life, the first fruits appear).
    • High annual fecundity.

    Among the many advantages, there are significant drawbacks:

    • Short laying period.
    • Lack of storage.
    • Low transportability.
    • Small fetus size.

    Medium or small, regular shape and irregular bumpy surface. They reach full maturity at the end of August, but at the beginning of September the fruits are already collected. Fruit weight does not exceed 115-135 grams. The shelf life of the fruit - no more than 10-13 days. The skin is tender, soft, smooth, slightly oily, shiny.

    When pear fruits reach removable maturity, the color becomes light yellow with numerous subcutaneous spots, which are hardly noticeable (gray, green), but scattered over the entire surface of the fruit. The color of the fruit that has reached full maturity may change to light yellow.. From the side, turned to the sun, there is a small blush.

    Peduncle curved, thick, small. Small diamond shaped heart.

    The flesh does not have a strong aroma, medium density, white, very tender, fine-grained, there is some oiliness.

    To taste sweet and sour, juicy, ideal for fresh consumption. Pears are suitable for industrial processing, canning, fresh consumption.

    For long-term storage are harvested in the form of dried fruit. Raw pears make excellent jam.

    Taste qualities of the Cathedral are estimated at 4.0 points, appearance - 4.3 points. By chemical composition:

    • the amount of sugars —8, 5%,
    • acids — 0.3%,
    • dry matter — 16.0%.

    Pears should be collected within 3-5 days before reaching their full maturity and quickly used, as overripe quickly deteriorate, starting from the center.

    Tree care

    The description of the variety shows that it is demanding to the ground. Prefers fertile sandy-chernozem soil without clay. In all other cases, it is necessary to add nutrients annually so that the pear develops normally, does not hurt and bears fruit.

    Planting pears in a prepared pit

    A plot with closely located groundwater and wet sand is undesirable for landing the Cathedral. In such places, you need to specially prepare a place for planting, put the ground on a hill and ensure good drainage. Before planting seedlings, all weeds should be removed and the soil loosened. If you want, you can mulch.

    1. The soil and the pit for planting prepared in advance.
    2. Locate the future pear orchard.
    3. 10-14 days before planting, dig holes in the appropriate places. During this time, the soil has time to condense and settle and there is no risk that the root neck will be below the prescribed level. Pit size: 30 cm deep and 30-40 cm wide.
    4. Surface soil is dug to one side, and from deeper layers to the other.
    5. In the lower part of the pit poured fertile land in which the roots will grow. If the soil is of poor quality, make a mixture of land, peat and manure. Put a peg in the hole.
    6. Roots evenly placed in the pit, they can not be twisted and bent. Sick or broken need to be removed.
    7. The tree is placed in the hole so that the budding site is 15 cm above the surface and sprinkled with earth from another pile. When falling asleep the ground, shake the tree periodically gently to avoid voids between the roots. It is best to do it together.
    8. The vaccination site does not fall asleep.
    9. After planting it is plentiful to water a tree 5-10 liters.

    In the fall, around the pear tree form a protective mound, which is eliminated in March. In the spring, around the trunk of the Cathedral, it is recommended to put manure, at least 10 kg per plant, so that it does not come into contact with the trunk and grind it.

    If the summer is too hot and dry, then watering should be once a week. In wet weather - much less. It is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, remove dry and excess shoots, it is necessary for the correct growth of the tree, abundant fruiting, and the correct color of the fruit, the formation of taste.

    When pruning, it should be remembered that the pear bears fruit on short shoots that age much faster than long ones, and therefore the pear requires frequent rejuvenation.

    To do this, the old branches (3-4 years) are cut, leaving 5-10 cm from the guide stem, so that new branches grow on the old branches (from sleeping buds).

    Diseases and pests

    In sweet varieties of summer pears, there is often such a problem as fruit rot. And in order to prevent damage to the rest of the harvest, it is necessary to remove rotten and rotten fruit both from and near the tree. Most often the variety is subject to such diseases:

    • black cancer,
    • cytosporosis,
    • bacterial burn.

    Sometimes pear trees do not bloom, then they should be treated. It is carried out using copper sulphate (iron), Bordeaux mixture or slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate. In difficult cases resort to the help of strong chemical solutions.

    Jam of Pears Cathedral

    • sugar - 1 kg
    • pears - 1 kg,
    • drinking water - 250 ml,
    • some citric acid.

    Preparation: For ripe fruit pickers choose.

    1. Wash fruits, drain, peel and cut into small slices.
    2. Boil the water and blanch the pear slices for 5-9 minutes.
    3. Remove the pears with a slotted spoon and put in cold water.
    4. In the water, after blanching the pears, add sugar and boil the syrup.
    5. Put the pears in the syrup and cook for 5 minutes. Leave the jam for 10 hours.
    6. Cook the jam a second time for 10 minutes. After that, let stand for five hours.
    7. Last time, make jam until the slices are soft and pour them warm into pasteurized jars.
    8. Banks close and turn down the lid. Wrap in something warm and wait until cool.
    9. Store at room temperature.

    Jam of Pears Cathedral

    Delicious decorative dessert from the summer pear variety

    It is prepared in transparent or special cups, layering cookies and fried pears soaked in caramel and pouring the whole mass with creamy yogurt with a refreshing tinge of lemon (taste and texture gives it a jelly with lemon flavor). Top put a few slices of pear for decoration and sprinkle with grated dark chocolate before serving for a hundred. Lemon balm leaves will help to complete the elegant composition.

    1. Dissolve the jelly in one glass of hot water, let it cool.
    2. Peel the pears and cut into slices.
    3. Prepare light caramel with sugar, add butter and pear slices. Fry for 2 minutes, constantly turning.
    4. Beat the cream into a thick foam, mix with yogurt and cold jelly.
    5. Crumble cookies and arrange in four rosettes or special glasses.
    6. Put half of pears with caramel there.
    7. Pour the whipped cream and set to cool in the fridge.
    8. Top with the remaining pears and chocolate chips.

    Cultivation of the cat variety pear

    A pear is a fruit full of useful substances, having excellent taste characteristics. The fruit contains arbutin, pectins, fiber, which can improve digestion and normalize metabolism. With a fairly high sugar content, fruits have a low calorie content (42–45 kcal). This vitamin-mineral cocktail, located in the pulp, is on guard for health.

    To grow such a useful tree in the garden is not easy, especially for risky farming.

    The thermophilicity of the southern culture limits the range of its distribution, but the work of breeders has allowed to get a lot of hybrids that can grow both in central Russia and in more severe climatic conditions.

    Pear Cathedral will be a godsend for residents of the risk zone, because its resistance to cold is quite high. From this article you will learn what qualities a variety possesses, what it will take to grow a decent crop.

    Description of the cultivar, advantages and disadvantages

    The pear variety Kathralnaya is a famous cultivar obtained by S. T. Chizhov and S. P. Potapov at the Moscow Agricultural Academy.

    Breeders cross-pollinated two samples with codes 32-67 and 72-43, which are seedlings from crossing Forest Beauty and Theme of the same variety with Duchess Thigh.

    After the state tests of 1990, the variety was entered into the State Register, where in 2001 a mark was made on zoning for the Central Region.

    From its "parents", the Cathedral inherited a whole range of remarkable qualities - Theme gave her immunity to scab, Forest Beauty with beautiful small fruits and precociousness, and Duchesse with high yields.

    The height of an adult tree is average, 3-5 m. The conic crown with medium foliage greatly simplifies the care and harvest. Shoots are straight, gray, directed upwards, are sparse. Fruiting cultivar predominantly kolchatochnogo type, but it also happens that the ovary appear on the annual shoots. To see become the Pearl of the Cathedral you can in the photo below.

    Young shoots are slightly pubescent, with smooth reddish-brown bark. Large, bulging kidneys are also weakly pubescent. Large shiny oval leaves have a light green color, coarse veins, ciliate edge. The plate is concave, strongly bent upwards. Flowering in early May, large, cup-shaped buds.

    Fruit Description

    Consider more varietal characteristics of the fruit:

    • Average weight 110-130 g.
    • Maturation in 2-3 decade of August (late summer cultivar).
    • The form is pear-shaped, symmetrical with mounds on the surface. The stem is short, beveled, curved. The saucer is knobby, shallow. Seed chamber is small.
    • The thin peel with a glossy surface is covered with oily scurf. Removable color is greenish-yellow, at the time of full maturation it becomes a uniform light yellow color with a barely noticeable speck of blush. A large number of brown or greenish hypodermic points are scattered on the surface.
    • White fine-grained pulp has an average density, delicate semi-oily texture, delicate aroma. According to experts, the fruits deserve a rating of 4 points, and the attractive appearance of fruits is valued higher - 4.2 points.
    • The taste is sweet and sour, the sugar content is 8.5%.
    • The shelf life of the crop is 7-12 days, high marketability, and average transportability.Application is universal - fresh consumption, preparation of compotes, wines, marmalade, dried fruits.

    Small delicate pears look great in canned form. Beautiful appearance allows you to use fresh fruit to decorate confectionery.

    Pros and cons of the Cathedral

    Pear varieties Cathedral deserves the attention of gardeners, a description of its advantages include:

    1. entry into the fruiting period for 3-4 years after planting,
    2. high degree of frost resistance
    3. lack of seasonality of fruiting (each year brings stable yields),
    4. high productivity up to 60 kg per specimen or 85 tons per hectare,
    5. great fruit taste, nice appearance,
    6. unpretentiousness, ease of care,
    7. strong immunity to the main enemy of fruit trees - scab.

    Among the shortcomings, the description of the variety marks an extremely small shelf life, low transportability, small dimensions of the fruit. Although gardeners do not always agree with the last point, because not everyone is important for the size of the fruit.

    The variety is partially self-bearing, pollinators will be required for stable fruiting - Rogneda, children, Lada or Chizhovskaya. Feel free to choose other applicants, as long as they have the same blooming time.

    Planting dates

    The best time to plant a pear is traditionally early spring. Southerners can plant a culture at the beginning of autumn with the expectation that the tree has time for full rooting. In harsher climates, planting is carried out in the fall, so that the seedling grows stronger over the summer and is prepared for the first frost test.

    Site selection, soil

    Pear varieties Katedralnaya - a real fussy. It grows only on light, fertile, clay-free substrates. The high permeability of sandy-chernozem soil makes it ideal for planting culture.

    A southern visitor will need a spacious, well-lit area on the south side. Keep trees away from buildings or other garden dwellers. The site should not be blown by the winds.

    An important criterion in choosing a place for a pear is the level of occurrence of groundwater. If the aquifer is closer than 2.5 m to the soil surface, discard the selected location or arrange a high drainage layer.

    How to plant a sapling

    Suitable for planting seedlings age 2 years, with a smooth bark, elastic shoots without signs of damage or damage by pests. The root system of planting material must be well developed, have many adventitious roots.

    Planting is preceded by digging holes in which potash-phosphorus fertilizer is placed. To improve the mechanical composition, a bucket of sand is introduced into the soil, and to increase the fertility, 2-3 buckets of organic matter — peat or humus. A sufficient size of the hole is 80 cm in diameter and a depth of 90-100 cm. Moreover, such a hole is prepared in advance, at least 3 weeks before planting.

    Planting technology:

    • dig a hole of the required size, pour a layer of fertile soil mixture, pour it abundantly, leave it for ventilation for 2-3 weeks,
    • when the ground is compacted, drive in a support stake 30 cm from the center of the earthen hill. Its height should be such that the root neck is 4-7 cm above the ground level,
    • place the seedling root system on the hill, add the remaining soil, carefully compacting it,
      decorate your trunk, pour it abundantly, tie it up to the support. Grate the peat chips.

    Remember that the pear of the Cathedral requires cross-pollination. Make sure that among her neighbors were the necessary varieties.

    Irrigation regime

    Pear Cathedral belongs to the drought-resistant crops, so it is important to observe a moderate mode of irrigation. They irrigate trees every 3 weeks, 50–70 liters per specimen. Especially important is watering during flowering, the laying of greenfinches, during the formation of fruits and flower buds of the next year.

    Young plants after planting will need to be moistened weekly, and after rooting, you can add 20 to 30 liters to the trunk circle twice a month.

    Experienced gardeners recommend irrigation with sprinkling, it can not be done only when the trees are blooming.

    Fertilization

    Pear trees grow very quickly. To maintain their health and achieve high yields will require fertilization. In the spring they feed with nitrogen fertilizers, during the flowering they put potassium salt, and to prepare the wood for the winter you need a potassium-phosphorus complex.

    Responsive culture and foliar feed. Use ash or diluted urea.

    Crown formation

    For pear trees, annual pruning is required. Allocate a shaping haircut and sanitizing. In the first case, the excess shoots are removed, because of which the crown becomes too thick, cut out tops. Sanitize and rejuvenate trees by cutting out old, damaged, diseased branches. The best time for pruning will be early spring, when the tree is just awakening from sleep.

    Remember the rationing of the crop. To ensure that the fruit develops evenly and does not shrink, remove some of the greenfinches.

    Preparation for the rest period

    Although the Cathedral is winter-resistant, young saplings in central Russia will need shelter, and adult trees will need it in Siberia and the Urals.

    After leaf fall, remove loose leaves from the tree circle, loosen the soil. Tie the trunk with spruce branches, and lay a layer of agrofiber on top. Primstvolny circle zamulchuyte organic layer of 20-30 cm.

    About pear The cathedral gardeners reviews are positive. The combination of frost resistance, yield, precociousness and unpretentiousness allows you to easily cultivate a thermophilic crop along with other fruit trees. Neat tasty fruits of the Cathedral will delight relatives, will bring a lot of benefits.

    Pear Cathedra, grade description

    This variety was bred in 1990 in the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Trees of medium height, the crown with its shape resembles a regular cone with medium thickening. The main branches are straight, slightly bent to the top, rarely located. The bark on the branches and shtambe gray smooth. Almost all the fruits are tied on ordinary kolchatka, the rest - on the annual shoots.

    Shoots medium sized, round in cross-section, straight, have a small edge, the color is red-brown. Leaves oval-shaped, grow from medium to large size, light green in color, have slightly pointed tips.

    The shape of the fruit is correct, has a slight tuberosity typical of pears. The peel has a glossy shine, it is soft and smooth, slightly oily. You can eat the fruit after it acquires a greenish-yellow color. Fully ripened fruit has a light yellow color. The flesh is soft, white, fine-grained. The taste is sweet-sour, juicy, a slight oiliness is felt. The fragrance is mild.

    Advantages and disadvantages of the cat's pear

    Variety of pears of the cathedral belong to skoroplodnymi. This means that after 4 years you will be able to harvest the first crop of several dozen pears. Subsequently, you will harvest every year. Huge plus varieties - high yields. For five years, from one hectare of pears you can get 136 centners of fruit. In addition, the variety is resistant to scab, and this greatly simplifies tree care.

    Among the shortcomings: small size of pears and a small shelf life of fruits. After two weeks, the pears begin to deteriorate.

    Choosing a landing site

    For a pear choose the sunniest place, as even and dry as possible. The soil at the site of planting should be loose, air- and waterproof, capable of retaining the necessary moisture in the layer where the roots will be located. Best of all, the pear will bear fruit in a soil rich in nutrients. The ideal soil is sod-podzolic, gray forest or black soil. You can not plant a pear in the lowlands. In such places, groundwater is often located high, which will negatively affect the tree, especially in the winter. The Cathedral Pear doesn’t like shaded places.

    Landing pattern

    The pear planting scheme depends on the size of the area, the number of trees planted and the location of nearby buildings. Best of all, if the trees will be located at a distance of 3-5 m from other trees and buildings.

    Pear planting scheme:

    1. Prepare a pit (you need to dig a hole and fertilize it well).
    2. If the pear is not strong, it is necessary to drive a peg.
    3. The pit should stand for several days (thanks to this, the planted tree will not settle).
    4. Carefully place the seedling and drop it to the ground. Easier to work with an assistant. One person holds the tree at the right level, and the second - powders and compacts the soil.
    5. It remains to tie the seedling to the peg and pour it with water.

    Rules for irrigation of the Cathedral Pear

    The cat variety pear is a little different from its counterparts, so it is very important to know how to water it.

    Pear - not too demanding on watering the tree. It will easily survive prolonged heat or drought. However, the pear still needs to be watered, especially young trees. If there is no rain for a long time, take care of watering: three buckets of water under one tree. Spread the soil well after watering, it will ensure the flow of oxygen to the roots. A great option for high-quality irrigation - morning or evening sprinkling. Install a special nozzle on the hose, imitating rain, which turns under pressure.

    Caring for the soil: dressing and weeding

    Planting and caring for the Cathedral Pear is not a very painstaking job. But feeding for its growth and development is very important. Fertilizing pear recommended twice a year. The first time this is done until mid-September, fertilizing the pear with nitrogen fertilizer. The second time fertilizers are applied before the onset of frost. This may be humus or peat. They cover the area around the tree. Such feeding will not allow the roots to freeze.

    Due to the gradual transition of the fertilizer into the ground, the pear will receive all the nutrients by the spring when it needs special support. If a young tree grows only 40 cm in a year, and a fruit bearing - by 20 cm, it is worth thinking about fertilizing the soil. Include in the "diet" of the Cathedral Pear various mineral supplements.

    As for weeding, it is vital for pear at a young age. Weeding will rid the pear of competitors that absorb the necessary moisture. Do not think that weeding is important only for a young tree. We must always get rid of weeds, because they turn into breeding grounds for aphid larvae - the worst enemies of the trees. And thanks to the periodic weeding, the soil will always be loose, and therefore, saturated with oxygen.

    Features trimming the Cathedral pear

    The pear should be cut from the age of two. Thus, you can initially form a crown. The two-year sapling already has about 8 side branches. Four of these branches are chosen and they are made of the main, "bearing" branches. These branches are placed at an equidistant distance from each other at an angle of 45 degrees.

    When pruning a mature tree, it is necessary to remove old, dry, damaged, diseased and incorrectly growing branches.

    How to protect the pear from frost

    Although the Cathedral Pear endures frosts with endurance, it is still worth warming. In no case can not whitewash the tree before the frost. Whitewashing will only clog the pores of the bark and prevent the tree from breathing. The best insulation is snow. It perfectly protects the tree trunk from winter frosts.

    In the winter with little snow, wrap the trunk with newspapers or cotton cloth.

    Now you know, how to plant a pear cathedra, and you can wisely take care of the tree which is in the future will bring you a lot of great fruit.

    Characteristics of the tree

    Trees are characterized by medium growth and crown of the correct conical shape, with average thickening. The main shoots are rare, straight, with upturned ends. The bark has a gray tint and smooth to the touch. The shoots are red-brown in color, the leaves are light green, and large flowers are painted white.

    Pollinator varieties

    Other summer pear trees will be suitable as pollinators for the cat pear. The ideal choice would be:

    • Chizhovskaya
    • Memory Zhegalov,
    • Children's,
    • Academic,
    • Rogneda,
    • Lada.

    You can pick up other varieties for pollination, as long as the trees coincide with the ripening period.

    Yield

    The variety is considered skoroplodny, so the harvest of two or three dozen fruits can be removed in the fourth year after planting. Trees show high yields. The average is 85 kg / ha. On average, 35 kg of pears are obtained from one plant.

    For 5 years of testing, the pear showed an average yield of 136.5 q / ha, which is higher than the control variety.

    Self-fertility

    The cat pear trees are notable for their good self-fertility; they show excellent results when pollinated by bees and other insects. However, it is believed that this quality is only partially manifested, therefore it is necessary to take care of additional pollination and plant compatible pollinating varieties near the pear.

    Disease resistance

    The cat pear is sufficiently resistant to the main disease of fruit trees - scab, which greatly facilitates the care of it. However, when breeding pears, one should bear in mind the probability of infection with cytosporosis, moniliosis or black cancer. To protect the trees, prophylactic treatment with protective agents should be carried out, and damaged plants should be treated immediately.

    Description of the fetus

    Fruits possess the correct pear-shaped form, with obviously expressed hilly surface. The skin is tender and smooth, slightly oily, with a glossy shine. Painted in a greenish-yellow hue, at the onset of full ripeness, the color may change to light yellow with a pink-red blush. There are subcutaneous patches of gray and green in large quantities, but they are hardly noticeable. The stem is medium in length and curved.

    Calorie content

    Pear is a dietary product, because it has a low calorie content - an average of 40-50 kcal. Due to the high content of fructose and glucose, fruit can be a substitute for harmful sweets on a diet. The chemical composition of the department variety: the content of solids is 16%, sugars 8.5%, acids 0.3%.

    The pulp of the cat pear is white, semi-oily, tender and juicy. The structure is fine-grained and slightly dense. At the stage of full aging, the taste is sweet-sour, with an average degree of aroma.

    Using

    Cathedral pear refers to table varieties.

    In addition to fresh use, it is great for making compotes, wine, dried fruit, marmalade.

    The tasting grade on a five-point system is 4.0 points for the evaluation of taste and 4.3 points for appearance.

    Planting, growing, care

    Growing fruit crops requires advance preparation. Depending on the type and variety, you need to think in advance about the time and place of planting, possible problems and ways to eliminate them. With the right actions, from the moment the seedlings are selected, healthy trees can be obtained, which in a few years will begin to delight with abundant yields of tasty fruits.

    The cat pear is very picky about the composition of the soil. The ideal choice for wood is nutritious sandy-black soil. When loamy or sandy soil in the place of planting must be applied fertilizer before planting. It is undesirable to choose a land plot with possible stagnation of groundwater. If there is no other choice, the seedling is placed on a specially prepared hill.The cat pear needs a different pollinator tree, so it is advisable to choose a landing site near the pear trees or to plant several compatible species at the same time.

    Transplantation of seedlings in open ground is carried out twice a year - in spring and autumn. In the southern regions fall planting with warm weather (late September - early October) will do. For seedlings in the fall there is an advantage in the form of a sufficient amount of moisture and nutrients in the soil, which enhances the formation of new roots and promotes rooting of the plant.

    Trees planted in autumn are less sensitive to changes in weather conditions, but are more resistant to diseases and harmful insects.

    In the conditions of the Moscow region and the central part of Russia it is advisable to plant seedlings of a cat pear in spring (end of April - beginning of May). This will allow the root system to settle down well before the onset of cold weather, which ensures a stable wintering of the tree.

    The plant must be planted in a permanent place, because the pear does not like transplants.

    Technology and agricultural technology

    The transplant site must be prepared in advance. It is advisable to choose a site without closely located buildings or other fruit trees. The place should receive enough sunlight, but protect the tree from the prevailing winds in the area. For spring planting, the pit will be dug out in the fall, and for the fall, in a few weeks. Sizes vary according to root system. Standard parameters are 1 m depth and 80 cm in diameter. The selected seedling is placed inside the pit, the root system is straightened and covered with earth. The landing site is tamped down, watered, and the trunk is tied to a support.

    What to grow better

    The right choice of seedlings is extremely important. The best planting material of the department pear are plants in the second or third year of life. The tree should not have visible damage, the bark should be supple and smooth. The root system should not contain rot and, if possible, damaged roots.

    In a healthy seedling, the roots are well developed - the more additional thin roots, the faster the plant will grow.

    Distance between trees

    Fruit plants do not like thick planting. If trees are too close to each other, it will negatively affect them, because there will be a constant struggle for nutrients and water. Also, tall trees will cover lower, which will lead to lower yields. Long distance is also undesirable, especially between pollinating trees. Srednerosly plant needs 4 meters, and vigorous - in 6-7 meters.

    For normal growth and development, abundant fruiting fruit trees need proper care. Plants should be watered and fed in a timely manner, preventive treatments and sanitary pruning of damaged shoots should be carried out. The variety is generally unpretentious to watering and tolerates heat or drought normally. It is also necessary to periodically weed the earth around the trees in order to prevent the occurrence of pests.

    Plants fertilize according to their condition and appearance. Fertilizer is applied from the second year after planting, in spring and autumn. Sometimes foliar feeding is allowed. In the spring, 30-40 g of ammonium nitrate or 500-600 g of urea are allowed. When rainy weather, they are brought under the tree, without rain - pre-diluted in 10 liters of water. In the fall, a mixture of 1 tbsp. calcium, 1 tbsp. potassium, 2 tbsp. double superphosphate and 10 liters of water. Universal fertilizer is a mixture of 15 g of urea, 25 g of potassium chloride and 9 kg of humus.

    Organic fertilizers are applied once every three years, mineral supplements can be applied annually.

    Ripening and storage of fruits

    The Cathedral Pear is a mid-summer variety of ripening.The harvest is collected during August, most often in the second half. By the beginning of autumn all the fruits collected.

    Pears do not differ in keeping quality. Under the right conditions, they retain freshness for no more than 2 weeks, an average of 7-12 days.

    Rejuvenation

    Older trees begin to reduce yields, so they need to be rejuvenated. This procedure allows the tree to upgrade and prolongs the period of fruiting. From the central shoot, all branches are cut off, except 3-5 of the strongest. Thus, the tree concentrates more nutrients on fewer shoots.

    Trees need annual pruning. The best period for this is the early spring, before the start of sap flow.

    Pruning begins in the second year, as annual plants do not need it. This procedure in the first four years allows you to form a crown, and then protects the plant from disease and improves the quality of the crop. When pruning, damaged or weak shoots are removed.

    Description and characteristics

    The variety is most often grown in the so-called “zone of risk farming”, but the Cathedral is also popular in the south of our country. Mass harvest begins to gather from the end of summer, it all depends on the climatic conditions. In seasons with mild weather, the ripening period is at the beginning of August, in cool summer - at the end of the month.

    The pear of the Cathedral is considered to be a self-fertile variety, however, good yields can be obtained only in multi-plantings. For high-quality cross-pollination, pears such as Lada, Rogneda, Children's, Zhegalov's Memory, Akademicheskaya or Ryzhovskaya are planted nearby.

    Tree characteristics

    The tree is not higher than 4 meters, the crown is conical, medium thick. The branches are straight, they are directed upwards. The bark on the trunk and skeletal branches is smooth, gray. Rarely pears are observed on annual shoots. The main part of the fruit tied on simple kolchatkah. The shoots are weakly articulated, straight with slight pubescence.

    The leaves are medium or large, oval, green with a slightly pointed tip. The plate is smooth, dense, shiny with coarse veins, slightly serrated along the edge and concave in the center. The flowers are cupped, large with white petals.

    Rules for planting pears

    First of all, it is worth noting that, despite the high winter hardiness, trees, especially young ones, may suffer in the winter. However, the damage is usually minor, the pears recover very quickly. But it is better to place the tree in well-lit places with poor airflow.

    The soil should be wet, but not swampy, in places with poor and heavy soil the pear will not grow. On damp areas, before planting, a hill of earth is poured about a meter in height, and good drainage must also be organized. The best period for planting is the end of September - the beginning of October, if the seedlings are in the spring, then it is better to have time to plant them before budding.

    For spring disembarkation, a pit is prepared in autumn, and for autumn in early summer. The depth and width of the hole should not be less than a meter. At the bottom is placed a mixture of the top layer of garden soil, 15 kilograms of compost or humus and 20 kilograms of peat. 2 weeks before planting, a small mound of the previously prepared mixture is constructed in the pit, a peg for the garter is driven in the middle. The seedling is placed in the middle of the hole in such a way that the root collar is 3–4 cm higher than the ground level. Now, gradually straightening the roots, the tree is covered with earth.

    After the landing, the pear is shortened to 50 cm, tied up, the ground is trampled, an earthen bank is constructed around the seedling. Under the tree should be poured at least 3 buckets of water, but it is better to pour as much as the soil will take. After the moisture is completely absorbed, the tree trunks are mulched with peat or humus.

    Useful tips

    The described method of planting saplings is the most common and reliable, but experienced gardeners give additional recommendations for planting the Cathedral cat:

    • 1, 5 kilograms of superphosphate, 2, 5 kilograms of phosphoric flour and a kilogram of wood ash can be added to the mixture to fill the landing pit,
    • Nitrogen fertilizers should not be used during planting,
    • when preparing the pit, it is necessary to evaluate the condition of the lower layer of soil, if the ground is heavy, sand or sawdust is poured at the bottom of the hole,
    • pear roots have a heightened sensitivity, they are difficult to tolerate direct contact with nitrogen and potash fertilizers,
    • pear is not planted next to the mountain ash, these cultures are attractive to the same pests.

    By planting any plant should be treated responsibly, especially when it comes to laying the garden. Do not neglect even the simplest advice, it can adversely affect in the future.

    How to care for a grade

    Pear cathedra is rarely affected by pests and in order not to attract insects once again, all weeds need to be cleaned as soon as they begin to germinate. Weed grasses interfere with young saplings with an immature root system, clog them.

    Likewise with watering, the Cathedral easily tolerates heat and drought, but it is better not to leave the trees without moisture during such periods. Once a week I pour out 2 or 3 buckets of water under a pear, and after watering the ground is loosened. Feeding is carried out from the second year after planting in the spring and autumn. Organics are used every 3 years, and mineral complexes annually. What and when to use:

    • To begin, let us describe a universal mixture that can be applied under a pear at any time of the year - 9 kilograms of humus, 25 grams of potassium chloride and 15 grams of urea. Fertilizer is used for digging,
    • In the spring, they take urea, make up to 600 grams of fertilizer under the tree - in rainy weather, when digging, in normal water they dissolve in water and water a pear,
    • In the fall, the tree is fed with potassium and calcium, one st. l., as well as superphosphate (2 tbsp. l.). The number of ingredients is calculated on 10 liters of water.

    In the summer, foliar dressing with urea can be carried out; for this, take no more than 50 grams of the substance per bucket of water. Spraying is carried out early in the morning or in the evening.

    It is possible to cut a pear from the age of two, at this time the tree usually has about 8 side branches. Four of them choose the best and shorten them by a quarter of the length. Suitable shoots are at equal distances from each other and grow at an angle of 45 degrees. The rest of the branches are cut off completely, not leaving even a small stump. In the fall, the adult tree removes the seed-bearing, dry, excess, and inward-growing branches, and fine sprigs, tops, are also pruned.

    In general, the cultivation of pears of the Cathedral does not cause much trouble, even a novice will cope with it. Despite the small weight of fruits and the most common taste, the variety is always in demand among gardeners.

    Egor. The cathedral is very similar to Lada, but the second term of ripening is late and the fruits are larger. In my garden, they grow nearby, so the yields are always very good. Pruning spend the fall, remove all unnecessary and form the crown. Trees I spray only from aphids and mainly experimenting with folk remedies; a decoction of wormwood with a little soap is good for showing itself. I live in the middle Urals, the variety winters fine.

    Pauline. I read that the Cathedral is not suitable for making jam. It is not true, I take off pears a little underripe, it does not affect the taste, but the jam is beautiful, the pieces of fruit remain intact. Ripe pears are stored poorly, tried different ways, in the refrigerator they are no more than 10 days. There were no illnesses even in the worst years, but the weevil was chasing, using the drug Fufanon (10 ml per bucket of water).

    Description of the species

    The trees are medium sized with a conical crown shape. The density of foliage and branches is also average. The branches are straight, growing up the ends. Smooth bark gray. Reddish brown shoots are round and medium size. Large, cone-shaped buds with slight pubescence.Light green leaves reach different sizes, the oval shape of which is pointed towards the end and with teeth along the edging. The surface of the sheet is smooth, glossy with pronounced veins. The white petals of the flowers are quite large and have a bowl configuration.

    Light yellow fruits of small size and by weight reach 130 grams. Looking at the description, the photo of the Cathedral cat, we see very attractive in appearance fruits. The form is a standard pear-shaped with a slightly bumpy surface. The peel is bright, smooth, tender with subtle dermal points. The yellow and pale green color of the surface is sometimes complemented by a small pink blush. The average length of the stem is curved and wide. No funnels. The saucer is medium in size and quite shallow. Brown egg-shaped seeds are found in small, closed seed chambers. Juicy, white pulp loose in structure has a sweet-sour taste. On a 5-point assessment of taste, the variety received 4 points, and in appearance - 4.3 points. The chemical composition of the fruit in question amounts to 8.5% of sugars, up to 16.0% of dry substances and 0.3% of acids.

    Disadvantages and advantages

    An appetizing departmental pear, the photo of which is proof of this, has not only advantages, but also some flaws. The advantages include the following qualities:

    • not prone to scab,
    • resistance to low temperatures
    • precociousness
    • rich harvests
    • annual fruiting.

    • small fruit
    • perishable fruits.

    The small size of the fruit in some cases is not a disadvantage, for example, in the field of canning compotes for the winter miniature pears look aesthetically pleasing in jars.

    Pear Cathedra, planting and care for which is not difficult and little laborious, like many gardeners. When landing the cathedral you need to choose a flat and dry surface on your site. The density of the soil should be the highest so that it can hold all the resulting moisture as long as possible. The most suitable soil for such a tree should contain many nutrients, black earth or ash. The pear is usually planted in late spring or early autumn. Winter time, garden trees are well tolerated.

    Pear varieties of cathedral can not be planted in the shade and in the depressions.

    Landing procedure:

    1. Dig pits 60 cm deep, 100-150 cm wide. Width depends on the ground. With ordinary soil, the width is minimal, sandy, however, requires to increase it to 150 cm. After preparing the pit, you need to wait several days so that the seedling does not settle down after planting. The distance between the pits is better to take 3 meters.
    2. After a few days to begin landing. The future of the tree is vertical to the ground and covered with earth, tamping. A fragile tree trunk needs a support with a peg. If necessary, install a stake near the barrel.
    3. Attach the barrel to the previously prepared peg / stakes and pour water.

    Studying the features of the cathedral pear, its description and photo, one must also take into account that the mid-summer variety begins to ripen in the 2nd half of August, and the tree does not bear fruit for long. In addition, it has an average degree of transportability. Therefore, this fruit is great for processing and storing it as dried fruit, compotes. Regardless of their precocity, the pear tree produces a stable crop every year, which is 85 c / ha.

    Pear care is a little painful. The soil is fertilized twice a year. The first time with nitrogenous means in September, the second time with humus or peat before frosts. We must not forget about weeding near the tree. Getting rid of weeds and other vegetation allows the pear to absorb all the necessary moisture and nutrients. This is especially important for a young tree.

    Pollinators for the Katedralnaya pear have a certain meaning, although it is itself quite prolific. The varieties Chizhovskaya, Rogneda, Lada, Nursery in cross-pollination do an excellent job with their purpose.

    Pruning should be done in April. And even better to focus on the weather and the onset of heat, until sap flow began. Removal of unnecessary branches is made "under the ring", stumps should not be left.

    The table grade of pear is unpretentious in leaving, it is resistant to frosts and diseases. Do not be lazy and plant a tree of the cathedral variety so that for many years you can enjoy yourself with sweet and healthy fruits.

    Description and characteristics of the pear Cathedral

    Trees of this variety grow to 10 meters in height. The correct conical shape of the crown has an average density. The bark on the trunk and the main branches, growing straight and rarely, is colored gray, smooth to the touch. Fruiting occurs on simple kolchatka and annual shoots.

    The history of the cathedral variety began in the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Authorship belongs to two breeders - S. P. Potapov and S. T. Chizhov. In 1990, the variety was tested and in 2001 was included in the State Register.

    The sheet plate is oval, leathery, curved, with a finely toothed edge. Color is saturated green.

    Blooms with large white cupped flowers. Fruits are small, pear-shaped. The surface is covered with small tubercles. The mass of one fruit ranges from 110 to 130 g. The skin is smooth, delicate and shiny. There are many hypodermic points, but they are hardly noticeable. Coloring is greenish-yellow. It usually changes when it reaches full ripeness, becoming a light yellow color with a light pink-red blush. The peduncle has a slight bend and average length. Seeds are small, dark brown.

    The pulp of the pear is white, juicy, tender and semi-oily. The structure is slightly dense and fine-grained. The taste is sweet and sour with a medium aroma.

    Tasting grade grade - 4.4 points on a five-point system.

    Distinctive features of the Cathedral cat:

    1. Skoroplodnost and regular fruiting.
    2. Self-fertile, can produce yields when pollinated by insects.
    3. The variety can be grown in almost any region of Russia, with the exception of the Far North.

    A bit of history

    This variety was bred by employees of the Moscow Agricultural Academy. S. Chizhov and S. Potapov were engaged in work on obtaining it. For these purposes, the breeders crossed the “forest beauty” and its hybrid with the “duchess thigh”.

    It was originally planned that the pear “cathedral”, the photo of which can be viewed just below, will be grown in the central zone. But due to its high frost resistance, it can grow in temperate northern areas. In 1990, the variety passed the state test. And eleven years later it was brought to the State Register in the Central Federal District.

    Pear “cathedral”: description

    It is not a very tall tree with a regular cone-shaped crown, smooth gray bark and straight branches directed upwards. Lightly pubescent rounded shoots are colored reddish brown. On them are located large bent buds, visually resembling a wide cone.

    Oval leaves with slightly pointed ends painted in a light green shade. And their sizes range from medium to large. Along the edges there are mild notches. And the brilliant and smooth plate itself is strongly bent upwards.

    The large flowers of the “cathedral” pear, the description and photo of which are presented in this publication, look like a bowl surrounded by white oval petals. The tuberous fruits have a typical shape and do not differ in impressive size. Their average weight does not exceed 110-130 grams. They are covered with a delicate smooth skin on which numerous green and gray dots are clearly visible. About the maturity of the fruit can be judged by the greenish-yellow color. This variety has a fine-grained white flesh and has a sweet and sour taste.

    Irrigation recommendations

    Excess or lack of moisture reflects badly on the state of the “cathedral” pear, the reviews and photos of which can be viewed in the course of this article. First of all the foliage and the tree itself suffer from this. The maximum moisture required by the plant during flowering. If in early spring the tree is deficient in water, then most of the buds that have started will remain undiscovered. This will lead to a slower growth of shoots and leaf development.

    The lack of watering during the summer period is fraught with the deterioration of the general condition of the trees and the death of the suction roots. If by the autumn the plant could not accumulate a sufficient amount of moisture, then the drying of the wood and the decrease in frost resistance begin.

    No less harmful and excessive watering. In this case, there is a reduction in the air content in the soil and the respiration of the root system. This leads to a gradual drying out of the tree, starting with the center conductor.

    Pear "cathedral" needs regular moderate watering. As a rule, mature trees moisten 4-6 times a summer, using 50-70 liters of water for each plant. Young specimens are watered much more often. During the first year, this is done once a week, then the interval is increased to fourteen days. At the same time, 20-30 liters of water are spent on each tree.

    Care of fruit plantations

    In the process of growing pear “cathedra”, the description and reviews of which are presented in this publication, you need to follow a few simple requirements. The soil should be fertilized with peat or peat-mulch. It should be laid eight-centimeter layer. Fertilizer consumption on average will be about 25 kg / m 2.

    In the second year, buckwheat, mustard and vegetables can be grown in the soil between the trees. You can not plant there late varieties of cabbage, as this will delay the autumn digging of the soil. It is also forbidden to grow corn between trees. This plant contributes to a strong desiccation of the substrate and inhibition of the growth of the fruit tree.

    It is extremely important to systematically weed the soil in order to rid the pear from competition for moisture and nutrients. In addition, weeds are an excellent medium for aphids, which over time will begin to destroy garden trees.

    This procedure is recommended, starting from the age of two. It contributes to the correct formation of the crown and avoids numerous problems. Pruning pears “cathedra” is best done in April, before the buds bud. This will not only significantly improve the quality of the fruit, but also protect the tree from diseases.

    Cutting branches made at the very base. This should be done so as not to leave hemp. It is advisable to remove all branches that are in contact with the ground. Cut only weak shoots. The number of remote branches should not exceed fourteen pieces.

    Pear “cathedra” refers to the self-bearing varieties. It is well pollinated by bees and other insects. But some experts advise other summer varieties of pears to be planted next to it. In their opinion, “Lada”, “academic” and “Zhegalov’s memory” are best suited for such purposes.

    Protection from spring frosts

    These trees usually tolerate a temporary drop in temperature. Most of all, young plants suffer from returning spring frosts. Therefore, they need additional protection from temperature fluctuations.

    To reduce the intensity of heat transfer of the soil, you can use smoke. This technique can significantly reduce the cooling of fruit trees and minimize the risks of damage to the buds and flowers.

    Also, to reduce the aggressive effects of late frosts, it is recommended to use irrigation technology that helps to obtain additional heat.

    Insect pests

    Pear trees often suffer from the attacks of weevil, sucker, haw, and green aphids.These voracious insects are able to destroy most of the crop. To avoid this, you need to know how to deal with the above pests.

    Green aphids are distinguished by their ability to reproduce rapidly. It feeds on plant sap, provoking their withering. You can destroy this insect with Bordeaux liquid or 0.3% karbofos.

    Hawthorn eats greens, flowers and ovaries. It leaves completely bare branches behind. To get rid of this caterpillar, it must be shaken from the trees and destroyed with the help of insecticides.

    Medianitsa affect the kidneys and ruin the buds. In addition, they are the main carriers of soot fungus. To combat them, trees are sprayed with kemiphos or karbofos. And do it in early spring, before the appearance of the kidneys.

    The most common diseases

    Unfortunately, fruit trees often suffer not only from pests, but also from various ailments. One of the most common diseases is powdery mildew. It can be recognized by a white, easily retractable coating. Gradually, it begins to grow dark and coarse, and eventually transforms into black dots. This leads to drying and folding of the leaves. To overcome this disease, the affected tree is treated with a solution of colloidal sulfur or the Topaz fungicide.

    No less dangerous for pear trees is moniliosis, affecting the fruits themselves. Initially, it has the appearance of a brown spot, rapidly spreading across the surface of the fruit. Over time, the fruit dries out and mummifies. To avoid this problem, trees are recommended to be treated with the fungicide “Fitosporin” or 5% iodine.

    A lot of problems are caused by sooty fungus, which is easily confused with scab. The leaves and fruits of an infected plant are covered with black bloom, transforming into dark spots. The emerging film prevents the access of sunlight, as a result of which the pear begins to lag behind in development. A soap solution of copper sulphate or Bordeaux liquid is usually used as a control against this disease.

    Pear trees often suffer from rust. This disease is accompanied by the appearance of red spots strewn with black dots. To combat it, drugs such as Gamar, Horus, and Scor are commonly used. All of them have proven to be very effective means.

    Pear “cathedral”: reviews

    This variety is of great interest among professional gardeners. Many of them note high frost resistance, non-seasonality of fruiting and strong immunity to the main diseases of fruit trees. Also, experts do not ignore the unpretentiousness and undemanding variety, its high productivity and excellent taste of the collected fruits.

    But, like any other fruit tree, the pear “cathedra”, the description, photos and reviews about which can be found a little higher, has several significant shortcomings. According to professional gardeners, the minuses of this plant include the small size of the fruit, the low level of transportability and relatively short shelf life.

    The trick when planting pears - video

    The Cathedral Pear loves light and warmth - in the southern part of the garden she will feel great. The site should be spacious, not located near buildings and other fruit trees. In case of uneven illumination, pear branches will stretch towards the light and over time will easily break even under their own weight. You should also take into account the direction of the prevailing winds - the tree must be protected from them.

    By choosing a seedling should be taken seriously enough. The best age for planting material is 2-3 years. The tree should be without visible damage, have a smooth and resilient bark. The root system is well developed, without rot, with the least number of damaged roots.The more extra thin roots, the faster the seedling will grow.

    The pit for planting is prepared in advance. For spring landing, it is dug out in the fall, for autumn - a couple of weeks before the intended landing. The dimensions of the pit depend on the root system - as a rule, it is 80 cm in diameter and 1 m in depth.

    When digging, the upper fertile layer of the earth is laid aside in order to mix with 2-3 buckets of peat and humus, 1 bucket of coarse sand (if the soil is heavy). Potassium sulfate is poured at the very bottom of the pit - 3 tablespoons, superphosphate - 1 cup, mixed with top dressing so that the roots do not get burned. The earth fertilized with organic additives is poured into a hole and 2 buckets of water are poured into it. After 2 weeks, the soil is slightly compacted - you can start planting.

    Step-by-step process

      Stepping back from the center of the planting hole 30 cm from the south, we drive in a future support for the seedling. After landing, it should protrude above the ground by at least 50 cm.

    Soil shovel collected around the stake in the form of a hill.

    At a sapling we cut off foliage and we delete the roots having damages.

    The root system is dropped into the mixture of heteroauxins with an earthen talker, and then placed on the sides of the knoll so that the roots do not break. Fall asleep ground.

    The seedling is sometimes shaken so that there are no voids between the roots. For better shrinkage, the ground can be shed with water and fill up the remaining soil.

    The root neck should be 5-7 cm above the landing level.

    After disembarking, we tie a pear sapling to a support and build a roller around it from the earth with a diameter of 30 cm, which will not allow the water to spread during irrigation.

    On the good self-fertility of the cathedral pear, it has already been mentioned before, but pollinators still need to be taken care of. With cross-pollination, the yield and quality of the fruits increases markedly. Ideally coping with this task varieties Lada, Children, Chizhovskaya and Rogneda.

    When and how to fertilize

    The frequency of application of fertilizers directly depends on the state of the tree and the quality of the ground. If the plant is planted on fertile soil and gives a good increase, then there is no need for annual fertilization.

    If a pear grows on poor sandy soil - fertilizer will have to be applied every year, slightly increasing the dosage.

    Fertilizing begin pear immediately after the snow cover, a year after planting. Top dressing bring seasonally: in spring, summer and autumn.

    Fertilizer application schedule - table

    After flowering pear: infusion of chicken droppings and green grass. 2 buckets of weeds are poured with two buckets of water and add 1 kg of litter. Insist week. Use 1 liter of infusion per bucket of water. Application rate - 25 liters under one tree. Bring only after watering.

    Add when digging.

    When applying fertilizer, follow the indicated norms. An overdose of nitrogen will give the plant the power to build up the green mass, but it will have a bad effect on the laying of flower buds. Busting with trace elements will not allow the pear to absorb other beneficial substances.

    Watch the video: Evening News : 2019-04-17 (October 2019).

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